How is sound localized by the ear?
Sound localization is the process by which the ear determines the location of sound source. This process utilizes: subtle of difference in
- timing cues
Localization can be described in terms of 3rd dimensional position.
- The azimuth/horizontal angel
- Difference in arrival time between the ears, interval time difference.
- Relative amptitue of high frequency sound ( the head shadow effect )
- By asymmetrical spectral reflection from varous part of our bodies, including torso, shouldiers and pinno.
- Sound from right reaches the right ear first than the left ear because head shadows the left ear.
- The elevation/vertical angle
- Monaural of the pinna and EAC from direction selective filters.
- Dynamic binaural cues localization during head rotation.
- Interval time difference
- Interval level difference
- Cocktail party effect.
- Distance Velocity
It uses these clues to estimate the distance to the sound source
- Direct/reflection ratio
- Loudness : Distance & loudness
- Sound spectrum: Distance sound source sounds more muffled than close one because high frequencies are alternated.
- Initial time delay are small because the direct and the reflected sound waves have similar length.
- For a moving listener nearby sound source are passing faster than distant source.
- Level Difference: Very close sound source causes a different level b/w ears.
Tags: COCKTAIL PARTY EFFECT
, HOW IS SOUND LOCALIZED BY EAR
, LOCALIZATION OF SOUND
, MBBS QUESTION
, MS ENT QUESTIONS