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PREPARE FOR JOB INTERVIEWS

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If you are going for any medical job interviews specially in UK, you must know these and its always better to go prepared then to have awkward pauses when you do not have any answers. Hopefully these questions and answers may be of help to all of you. All the best !!

WHAT IS CLINICAL GOVERNANCE?
-> Clinical governance is defined as “a system through which NHS organizations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.”

WHAT ARE THE MAIN COMPONENT/ PILLARS OF CLINICAL GOVERNANCE?
-> The following are main components of clinical governance:
1) Risk Management
2) Clinical Audit
3) Education, Training and continuing professional development
4) Evidence based care and effectiveness
5) Patient and carers experience and involvement
6) Staffing and staff management
7) Information management

pillars of clinical governance

 

WHAT IS AN AUDIT?
-> Clinical audit is a process that has been defined as “a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and the implementation of change”

 

WHAT ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIT?

  1. Standards-based audit – It involves defining standards, collecting data to measure current practice against those standards, and implementing any changes that is necessary. It also involves further audit to see if these changes made is successful or not.
  2. Adverse occurrence screening and critical incident monitoring – This is often used  for cases which have caused concern or cases in which there was an unexpected outcome. The multidisciplinary team discusses individual anonymous cases to reflect upon the way the team functioned and to learn for the future. In the primary care setting, this is described as a ‘significant event audit’.
  3. Surgical audit – It involves data collection of all surgical cases, followed by ongoing review and assessment of performance and outcomes.
  4. Peer review – An assessment of the quality of care provided by a clinical team with a view to improving clinical care. Individual cases are discussed by peers to determine whether the best care was given. This mainly focuses ‘interesting’ or ‘unusual’ cases rather than problematic ones.
  5. Patient surveys and focus groups – These are methods used to obtain patient’s views about the quality of care they have received.

DO YOU KNOW THE BASIC STEPS/ STAGES OF AUDIT?

-> The following are the basic steps of audit:

  • Stage 1: Identify the problem or issue : involves the selection of a topic or issue to be audited
  • Stage 2: Define criteria and standards : A criterion here is a measurable outcome of care, aspect of practice or capacity and a standard is the threshold of the expected compliance for each criterion.
  • Stage 3: Data collection : data collected should be precise, and only essential information are to be collected.
  • Stage 4: Compare performance with criteria and standards
  • Stage 5: Implementing change
  • Re-audit: Sustaining Improvements

clinical audit cycle

HAVE YOU EVER BEEN A PART OF AN AUDIT?

-> Yes/ NO

HAVE YOU EVER SEEN ANYONE AT WORK CONDUCT AN AUDIT?

-> Yes/ No

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

->Clinical research is the study that determines the safety and effectiveness of new treatments, approaches and medications intended for human use for better health and care ,

It involves collection of evidence to establish that a new treatment or approaches are safe and effective.

HOW IS AUDIT DIFFERENT FROM RESEARCH?

AUDITRESEARCH
Basic statistical analysis usually suffices.Extensive statistical analysis is usually
required.
Creates knowledge of current clinical practice
and need for improvemen
Clinical trials assess new treatments, technologies or methods, whilst other research studies help better understand health and specific conditions.
Does not usually require ethical approvalAlways requires ethics committee approval
Findings usually only influence practice within
the area evaluated
Findings can have a wide
influence on clinical
practice.
Measures current practice against a standard.Tests hypotheses that evaluate or compare
interventions.
Never involves allocating patients randomly
to different treatment groups
May involve allocating
patients randomly
to different treatment groups
Never involves
experiments, whether on
healthy volunteers, or patients as
volunteers
May involve experiments on human
subjects whether patients, patients as
volunteers or healthy volunteers
Never involves patients receiving new
treatments.
May involve patients receiving a completely
new treatment.
Usually smaller scale over a shorter time
period
Usually large scale over a long time period

HAVE YOU EVER BEEN A PART OF AN RESEARCH?

-> Yes/ No

HAVE YOU EVER SEEN ANYONE AT WORK CONDUCT AN RESEARCH?

-> Yes/ No

WHAT IS EVIDENCE- BASED PRACTICE?

-> Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is defined by  Dr. David Sackett. EBP as “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.”

-> It is an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values which means that when health professionals make a treatment decision with their patient, they base it on their clinical expertise, the preferences of the patient, and the best available evidence.

evidence based practice

WHAT ARE THE BASICS STEPS IN EBP?

ASSESS
the patient
1. Start with the patient — a clinical problem or question arises from the care of the patient
ASK
the question
2. Construct a well built clinical question derived from the case 
ACQUIRE
the evidence
3. Select the appropriate resource(s) and conduct a search
APPRAISE
the evidence
4. Appraise that evidence for its validity (closeness to the truth) and applicability (usefulness in clinical practice)
APPLY:
talk with the patient
5. Return to the patient — integrate that evidence with clinical expertise, patient preferences and apply it to practice
Self-evaluation 6. Evaluate your performance with this patient

 

DO YOU HAVE AN IDEA ABOUT HIERARCHY OF MEDICAL EVIDENCE?

PYRAMID OF EVIDENCE

 

 

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