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REFLEXES RELATED TO NOSE

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  • Mediated through the brainstem
  • Axon reflexes may occur through sensory nerves alone

AXON REFLEXES:

  • Substance P , vasodilator , transmit this reflex
  • Initiated by mechanical irritaion or via histamine from mast cells
  • Substance P releases histamine from mast cells and thus amplifies the response

REFLEXES FROM NASAL STIMULI:

  • Stimulus: chemical irritation, temperature changes, physical stimuli.
  • Response depends from sneezing to cardiovascular and respiratory responses.
  • Sneezing is associated with:
  1. facial movements
  2. lacrimation
  3. nasal secretions
  4. vascular engorgement
  5. change in respiratory rate
  6. closure of larynx
  7. variable CVS responses

NASOPULMONARY REFLEXES:

  • Increase airflow through one side of nose is associated with increased ventilation of homolateral lung due to relaxation of bronchiole muscle on the same side.

REFLEXES ACTING ON THE NOSE:

  • exercise, emotion and stress causes vasoconstriction
  • hypoxia cases same effect
  • hperventilation  causes nasal congestion

CUTANEOUS STIMULATION:

  • cooling of feet, arm and neck skin causes vasoconstriction of nose
  • pressure to axilaa or lying on the dependent side will cause congestion

CENRAL CONTROL:

  • stimulation of hypothalamus( emption, exercise, flight and fight) cause vasoconstriction
  • vagal overactivity causes prolonged congestion and nasal obstruction
  • migraine may result in nasal symptoms, usually congestion and clear rhinorrhoea
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