TUMOUR MARKERS IN HEAD AND NECK CANCERS
- Monitoring treatment and
- Early diagnosis of recurrence
- These are found in blood, plasma and urine
- Cytological marker of oral cancer can be collected by mouth wash or cytological brushing but they are not diagnostic marker of invasive cancer.
- Rising and falling level of markers are usually associated with increase or decrease of tumour burden.
- The subject of tumour marker is in it’s infancy.
- Thyroid and Nasopharyngeal cancer are frequently used in clinical setting, mostly in the follow up.
IMPORTANT TUMOUR MARKERS:
1. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC):
- serum viral DNA of EBV by PCR
- used for prognosis and monitoring success of treatment.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA):
- marker of head and neck SCC
- elevated level indicates recurrence and help in monitoring the treatment.
3. SCCA for Inverted Papilloma: elevation indicates recurrence
4. Ig against EA, VCA: elevated in NPC helps to diagnose and follow-up of treatment.
5. Hormones used as a tumour marker:
- calcitonin: medullary carcinoma of thyroid
- catecholamines: pheochromacytoma
- thyroglobulin: thyroid cancer
- LDH: lymphoma
- Neuron specific enolase: Neuroblastoma and small cell carcinoma of lung.
- S-100: Schwannoma, meningioma, estheio-neuroblastoma
- Vimentin: melanoma, haemangiopericytoma
- Common leucocyte antigen:lymphoma
- Muscle specific actin and desmin: soft tissue tumour