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Author: Lustwithlife

Jun 04
2016

ENT PROBLEMS IN DOWN SYNDROME

GENERAL Frequent upper respiratory tract infection Atlantoaxial instability Sialorrhoea Thyroid disease THE AIRWAY Airway obstruction Narrow subglottis and trachea Mid facial hypoplasia Hypotonic pharyngeal airway MAcroglossia Ear disorders: Deafness Frequent

May 31
2016

VETIGO IN CHILDREN

Not an usual complain Usually during development, vestibular system is advance of auditory system and thus less vulnerable to environmental insult. By 24 weeks there is even a primitive vestibulo-ocular

May 29
2016

POSSIBLE FUTURE THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES OF TREATMENT OF HNSCC

Gene therapy Virus directed enzyme prodrug therapy: induction of herpes simplex virus “thymidine kinase gene” into tumour cell leading to expression of thymidine kinase which halts DNA synthesis and decrease

May 29
2016

MOLECULAR PROGRESSION MODEL OF HNSCC

The sequence of molecular changes in HNSCC progresses in following order : normal squamous mucosa squamous hyperplasia dysplasia carcinoma in situ invasive carcinoma metastasis

May 29
2016

FIELD CANCERISATION

Appearance of synchronus and metachronus tumour in upper aerodigestive tract. CONCEPT: Field cancerisation could be due to mechanism underlying development of multiple primary tumour: Presence of P53 mutant and elevated

May 24
2016

ANTIVERTIGINOUS DRUGS

The drugs used in the management of vertigo icludes: Antihistamines, Benzodiazepines, Phenothiazines, Monoaminergic agents, and Anticholinergic agents. ATIHISTAMINICS: Antihistamines prevent the histamine response in sensory nerve endings and blood vessels

Proto-oncogenes
May 19
2016

PROTO-ONCOGENES

Proto-oncogenes has dominant role than tumour supressor gene in reticuloendothelial  carcinoma Tumour supressor gene has more role in HNSCC E.g. PRAD1: Important oncogene in HNSCC, overexpression reduces disease free interval

tumor suppressor
May 19
2016

TUMOUR SUPRESSION GENE

Most common target for genetic alteration Homologous loss of P53 found in every type of Ca. P53 is the most extensively studied of known tumour supressor gene FUNCTION: Induces G1

May 19
2016

IMMUNOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF HNSCC

HNSCC cell secrete immunoregulatory cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 These IL effect growth  inhibition directly or indirectly E.g. Local treatment with IL-2 given transmural injection in recurrent HNSCC: positive response IL-2

ETIOLOGY OF HNSCC
May 18
2016

ETIOLOGY OF HNSCC

Carcinogens Viral Familial risk Iron deficiency anaemia Molecular epidemiology CARCINOGENS: Cigarette: releases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are broken down by aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase to produce carcinogenic epoxide. These binds to

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